Category: Importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

Importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

Reinforcement is a stimulus that follows and is contingent upon a behavior and increases the probability of a behavior being repeated.

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Positive reinforcement can increase the probability of not only desirable behavior but also undesirable behavior. For example, if a student whines to get attention and is successful in getting it, the attention serves as positive reinforcement, which increases the likelihood that the student will continue to whine. These tips describe different kinds of reinforcers that have been found to be effective in changing student behavior and a discussion of how to select and deliver appropriate and effective reinforcers.

There is much literature on this topic, and you are strongly encouraged to consult additional resources for a more in-depth discussion of positive reinforcement. Additionally, negative reinforcement and satiation when a reinforcer loses its effectiveness are also discussed. Natural and Direct Reinforcement: This type of reinforcement results directly from the appropriate behavior.

For example, interacting appropriately with peers in group activities will lead to more invitations to join such activities. The natural reinforcement for appropriate bids for attention, help, participation, etc.

The goal should always be to move the student to natural and intrinsic reinforcement.

importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

Social Reinforcers: These are reinforcers that are socially mediated by teachers, parents, other adults and peers which express approval and praise for appropriate behavior. Activity Reinforcers: Activity reinforcers are very effective and positive for students.

Allowing students to participate in preferred activities such as games, computer time, etc. This also provides social reinforcement from the partner. Tangible Reinforcers: This category includes edibles, toys, balloons, stickers and awards. Edibles and toys should be used with caution. Parents may have reason to object to edibles as reinforcement for example, if a student has a weight problem and toys can make other students envious.

These are powerfully motivating reinforcers. Token Reinforcement: Token reinforcement involves awarding points or tokens for appropriate behavior. These rewards have little value in themselves but can be exchanged for something of value.One of teachers most valued behavior management tools is reinforcement. Reinforcement can be used to teach new skills, teach a replacement behavior for an interfering behavior, increase appropriate behaviors, or increase on-task behavior AFIRM Team, Reinforcement may seem like a simple strategy that all teachers use, but it is often not used as effectively as it could be.

The goal of this article is to describe how reinforcement can be used more systematically in the classroom. Before we describe when and how reinforcement should be used, it is important to describe the difference between two types of reinforcement, positive and negative. Positive reinforcement is the delivery of a reinforcer to increase appropriate behaviors whereas negative reinforcement is the removal of an aversive event or condition, which also increases appropriate behavior AFIRM Team, An example of negative reinforcement is allowing the student to leave circle time for a five-minute break after they use a break card.

As you can see, the goal of both positive and negative reinforcement is to increase desired behaviors. Reinforcement is only truly being used if following an appropriate behavior, a consequence a reinforcer or removal of an aversive event is provided and it increases the likelihood of the student using the behavior in the future AFIRM Team, Reinforcement often fails to increase the desired behavior in the future when the reinforcer is not actually motivating to the student.

We can prevent this by including the student in the process of identifying reinforcers through reinforcer surveys or reinforcement sampling. A reinforcer survey asks the student to answer questions and checklists to identify their reinforcers. Primary reinforcers are those that are innately reinforcing, such as edibles small pieces of food or drink or sensory experiences light up toys, fans, massagers. Secondary reinforcers include tangible items, activities, special privileges, social praise, and attention.

Once these items are gathered, the teacher will then present the reinforcers in pairs to the student and see which one they choose. The teacher should continue to present sets of two reinforcer choices until all choices have been paired with one another. Once the teacher has identified reinforcers and data has been collected on the frequency or duration of the target behavior, delivery of the reinforcement can commence. In the beginning, the teacher or other staff member will want to provide the reinforcement every single time the student uses the target skill or behavior.

The goal of continuous reinforcement is to teach students that when they use appropriate behavior, they get rewarded. In order to make this strong connection, reinforcers need to be provided immediately following the target skill. The longer the time is between the behavior and the delivery of the reinforcer, the weaker the association will be. Behavior specific praise does two things: 1 it tells the student exactly what they are being reinforced for and 2 it helps students become more motivated by social reinforcers through the pairing of the desired item or activity with the praise and teacher attention AFIRM Team, Sometimes a teacher may begin using reinforcement, but over time they find it becoming less effective.

Depravation is keeping the reinforcer away from the student until they have exhibited the desired behavior. This ensures that when they receive the play dough contingent on their appropriate behavior, it will be highly reinforcing.This way, you're statistically more likely to win big.

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importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

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Positive Reinforcement in the Classroom: Tips for Teachers

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And you have an expressive attitude with impressiv. You are likely to receive visitors, or you may plan for a.Note: There is no analytics available for Instagram live videos at the moment. Beyond the above-mentioned metrics that you can obtain from Instagram analytics tools, you can go one level deeper by using some of those numbers to calculate more useful performance metrics.

Some of the Instagram analytics tools listed below can automatically calculate these metrics for you.

Reinforcement in the Classroom

Growth metrics allow you to know the change (increase or decrease) of a metric. An example is follower growth how your follower count is growing over time.

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For example, engagement rate is the percentage of your followers that has engaged with your Instagram post. Tip: Completion rate is often used for calculating the percentage of people who viewed all the photos and videos in your Instagram Stories.

It is determined by dividing the number of views for the last post in a story with the number of views of the first post in the story. Average metrics give you a benchmark for the general performance of your Instagram posts. For example, the metric, average likes per post, tells you generally the number of likes each of your posts received. Sum of metric for a period (e. But you can also use time period (i. For instance, you could calculate the average number of viewers for your Instagram live videos on different days of the week to determine which day might be best to live stream on Instagram.

Examples: Average comment, average engagement, average reach for Instagram Stories, and average viewers for Instagram live videos. By ranking your posts by the number of impressions, reach, engagement, or views they received, you can find out your top performing posts and attempt to repeat the success.

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Examples: Top post, top video, top 10 posts in terms of comments, and top 10 posts in terms of engagement. Instagram provides pretty much all of the metrics and insights listed above in Instagram Insights. All you need is an Instagram Business Profile. It shows you the top six posts in the past seven days sorted by impressions. If you have created a story in the past 24 hours, it will show up there. If you are running Instagram ads, you can see their performance here.

While Instagram Insights is great at providing level-one performance metrics and insights, there are several great, free Instagram analytics tools you can use to complement Instagram Insights.

Keyhole is a paid service but it offers a free preview of its service. You can use it to analyze your Instagram account or track a hashtag on Instagram.

The preview will only show data for up to one year with a max of 99 posts, which is great for a free tool. Socialbakers is a social media analytics tool, which provides a simple Instagram stats tracker. It provides the basic information you might be interested in, in a visually-appealing site. Squarelovin is a user-generated content platform for Instagram, and it has a free Instagram analytics tool.

You can connect more than one Instagram account to the tool and manage them using one dashboard.

importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

Simply Measured provides a free Instagram user report for accounts with up to 25,000 followers. All you have to do is to fill up a form with your particulars, and Simply Measured will give you a report on your Instagram account for the previous two weeks. Union Metrics is a multi-channel social analytics platform.

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The checkup looks at your account for the past month, and you can refresh the report every day. Websta is powerful, free Instagram analytics tool.

For example, you can create up to three custom feeds, reply to comments on your posts, and explore featured users and top hashtags. INK361 is an Instagram management tool.

importance of reinforcement in teaching and learning pdf

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